Verordening 2012/648 - Otc-derivaten, centrale tegenpartijen en transactieregisters


Samenvatting van Wetgeving

EU rules on derivatives contracts, central counterparties and trade repositories


Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 on OTC derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories


  • The European market infrastructure regulation (known as ‘EMIR’), lays down rules regarding over-the counter (OTC) derivative* contracts, central counterparties (CCPs)* and trade repositories*, in line with the G20 commitments made in Pittsburgh in September 2009.
  • EMIR aims to reduce systemic risk, increase transparency in the OTC market and preserve financial stability.


  • To increase transparency, EMIR provides that all information on all European derivative contracts must be reported to trade repositories and made accessible to supervisory authorities, including the European Securities and Markets Authority (ESMA).
  • To reduce counterparty credit risk*, EMIR sets out strict organisational, business conduct and prudential obligations for CCPs. Standard derivative contracts must be cleared through CCPs (see clearing*).
  • To reduce operational risk*, EMIR requires that electronic means must be used for the timely confirmation of the terms of OTC derivatives contracts.
  • The clearing and reporting obligations apply to firms which have large holdings in OTC derivatives, be it:
    • financial firms, e.g. banks and insurance firms, or;
    • non-financial firms, e.g. energy companies and airlines.
  • Intra-group transactions are exempted from central clearing under certain conditions.
  • Likewise, pension scheme arrangements are temporary exempted.
  • A suspension of the clearing obligation for certain OTC derivative contracts or certain counterparties is possible under certain circumstances.
  • ESMA is responsible for identifying contracts that should be subject to the clearing obligation, that is, those that are standardised and must be cleared by CCPs.
  • ESMA also supervises trade repositories.
  • EMIR sets out the competences of national competent authorities, colleges of supervisors and ESMA for the authorisation and supervision of CCPs established in the EUUnion as well as the competences of ESMA, the non-EU-country CCP college and the central banks of issue of Union currencies for the recognition of third-country CCPs and the supervision on an ongoing basis of the compliance of Tier 2 CCPs (non-EU-country CCPs which are systemically important or likely to become systemically important for the financial stability of the EU or of one or more of its Member States) with EMIR.
  • The European Commission has adopted a number of measures, including technical standards on the basis of ESMA drafts, to implement the terms of the regulation. The technical standards developed by ESMA cover a range of topics including, e.g. capital requirements of CCPs, the minimum data to be reported to trade repositories and supervisory reporting of institutions of the liquidity coverage requirement.
  • The Commission has also adopted decisions on the ‘equivalence’ of the regulation regimes for CCPs in certain non-EU countries.
  • The Commission adopted delegated regulations that determine that some classes of OTC derivative contracts must be cleared through central counterparties:

all amended by Delegated Regulation (EU) 2017/751.

  • These delegated contain rules on the classes of OTC derivatives and categories of counterparties subject to the clearing obligation and the dates from which the clearing obligation takes effect.


It has applied since 16 August 2012.


Over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives are generally negotiated privately. The information concerning them is consequently only available to the contracting parties, which can make it difficult to identify the nature and level of risks involved.

For more information, see:


Over-the-counter (OTC) derivative: a derivative is a financial contract linked to the future value or status of an underlying entity such as an asset, index or interest rate.An OTC derivative is a derivative not traded on an exchange or on an equivalent non-EU market but is instead privately negotiated between 2 counterparties, for example, a bank and a manufacturer.

Central counterparty (CCP): a body that acts between the 2 counterparties to a transaction, acting as the buyer to every seller and the seller to every buyer.A CCP’s main purpose is to manage the risk of a counterparty being unable to make the required payments when they are due, and defaulting on the deal.

Trade repository: a central data centre where details of derivatives transactions are reported. Trade repositories are commercial firms. There are global trade repositories for credit, interest rate and equity OTC derivatives (a particular class of derivative such as options or futures).

Counterparty credit risk: a risk that a counterparty, i.e. the other party in a financial transaction, will default on payment.

Clearing: all activities from the time a commitment is made for a transaction until it is settled.

Operational risk: a risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes or external events, e.g. fraud, human error, terrorism.


Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on OTC derivatives, central counterparties and trade repositories (OJ L 201, 27.7.2012, pp. 1-59)

Successive amendments to Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 have been incorporated in the original text. This consolidated version is of documentary value only.


Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2017/751 of 16 March 2017 amending Delegated Regulations (EU) 2015/2205, (EU) 2016/592 and (EU) 2016/1178 as regards the deadline for compliance with clearing obligations for certain counterparties dealing with OTC derivatives (OJ L 113, 29.4.2017, pp 15-17)

Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2016/1178 of 10 June 2016 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to regulatory technical standards on the clearing obligation (OJ L 195, 20.7.2016, pp 3-10)

See consolidated version.

Regulation (EU) 2015/2365 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2015 on transparency of securities financing transactions and of reuse and amending Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 (OJ L 337, 23.12.2015, pp 1-34)

Commission Delegated Regulation (EU) 2015/2205 of 6 August 2015 supplementing Regulation (EU) No 648/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council with regard to regulatory technical standards on the clearing obligation (OJ L 314, 1.12.2015, pp 13-21)

See consolidated version.

Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 680/2014 of 16 April 2014 laying down implementing technical standards with regard to supervisory reporting of institutions according to Regulation (EU) No 575/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council (OJ L 191, 28.6.2014, pp 1-1861)

See consolidated version.

last update 30.01.2017

Deze samenvatting is overgenomen van EUR-Lex.



Verordening (EU) nr. 648/2012 van het Europees Parlement en de Raad van 4 juli 2012 betreffende otc-derivaten, centrale tegenpartijen en transactieregisters Voor de EER relevante tekst